Ekzercaro: 10



Presentation and English notes by Don HARLOW

#10 (-in-, mal- -- en -- kia; tiel; kiel; ĉiu, ĉiuj; pli ol; plej el -- vi, si; mia, sia -- ĝojan feston!; kia ĝoja festo!.)

Papero estas blanka.
Blanka papero kuŝas sur la tablo.
La blanka papero jam ne kuŝas sur la tablo.
Jen estas la kajero de la juna fraŭlino.
La patro donis al mi dolĉan pomon.
Rakontu al mia juna amiko belan historion.
Mi ne amas obstinajn homojn.
Mi deziras al vi bonan tagon, sinjoro!
Bonan matenon!
Ĝojan feston! (mi deziras al vi).
Kia ĝoja festo! (estas hodiaŭ).
Sur la ĉielo staras la bela suno.
En la tago ni vidas la helan sunon, kaj en la nokto ni vidas la palan lunon kaj la belajn stelojn.
La papero estas tre blanka, sed la neĝo estas pli blanka.
Lakto estas pli nutra, ol vino.
Mi havas pli freŝan panon, ol vi.
Ne, vi eraras, sinjoro: via pano estas malpli freŝa, ol mia.
El ĉiuj miaj infanoj Ernesto estas la plej juna.
Mi estas tiel forta, kiel vi.
El ĉiuj siaj fratoj Antono estas la malplej saĝa.
amiko = friend
bela = beautiful
blanka = white
ĉiu = each, every one
  ĉiuj = all
deziri = desire
dolĉa = sweet
el = from, out from
en = in
erari = err, mistake
festi = feast
fraŭlo = bachelor
freŝa = fresh
  fraŭlino = miss
ĝoji = rejoice
havi = to have
hela = clear, glaring
historio = history, story
hodiaŭ = today
-in- = (ending of feminine words)
juna = young
kajero = copy-book
kia = of what kind, what a
kiel = how, as
lakto = milk
luno = moon
mal- = (denotes opposites)
mateno = morning
mia = my
neĝo = snow
nokto = night
nutri = nourish
obstina = obstinate
ol = than
pala = pale
papero = paper
plej = most
pli = more
rakonti = tell, relate
saĝa = wise
si = one's self
  sia = one's
sinjoro = sir, Mr.
stelo = star
tago = day
tiel = thus, so
vi = you
vino = wine


1. KE is used when an entire proposition, complete with a verb, takes the place of a single noun in the sentence, as in the example. It is usually translated into English as that. Emphatic warning: that has at least two other meanings as well, so don't automatically translate it back into Esperanto as ke.
2. Johano, Ludoviko, Teodoro are Esperanto versions of common personal names. Some people like to Esperantize their names like this. It is not, however, a linguistic requirement.
3. -U on the end of the word shows a command, request or desire that the state or action described by the word be brought about, maintained or fulfilled. In other words, it's sort of like the English imperative or command mood, and when spoken to a second person, that's exactly what it is. Unlike the English, however, in Esperanto you can direct such a command, etc., to yourself or to some person who is not present (mi ne kuŝu sur la tablo).
4. -N is probably the most criticized ending in the language -- and certainly the most useful. When attached to a noun, it shows that the thing in question is either the object (recipient) of the action described in the verb, or (if the verb shows movement only) the destination of that movement. Its most common use is as the direct object of a verb -- that is, the thing at which the verb's action is directed. Important note: The existence of -N does away with the need for a strict word-order as a means of defining who does what to whom: La leono trovis birdon = The lion found a bird, but La leonon trovis birdo = A bird found the lion. Two other important notes: When we want to show a plural word as a direct object, the -N follows the -J (plumo -> plumojn); and, as with plurals, any accompanying adjectives must have the same object ending as the noun (La frato vidas la maturajn homojn).
5. -I marks a state or action in an undefined time -- what in English is called an infinitive. The Esperanto -I almost always corresponds to the English to with a verb (almost because in English, after a very few "helping" verbs such as can, the to disappears; but the -I on the equivalent Esperanto word never disappears).
6. KUN means "with", but only in the sence of in the company of. The English with has a number of unrelated meanings (she traveled with her sister, he fought with a sword, he fought with his enemies), the others of which are handled by other prepositions which we shall encounter later.
7. -E indicates that the word, like an adjective, is a descriptive word; but where an adjective describes only some thing (noun), these E-words (adverbs) describe states and actions (verbs), and also other descriptive words (adjectives and other adverbs). Notice above that when a sentence starts with a verb (in the infinitive), any associated descriptive word has to be an adverb rather than an adjective (again, adjectives go only with nouns).

Ekzercoj por vi (Exercises for you)

1. Sharp teeth are dangerous.
2. Theodore's rose was healthy and shone.
3. Give me the lion's book, the father's pencil and the brother's pen.
4. I saw the lion's teeth.
5. Who dares to find an apple?
6. The children stayed with the father and the brothers.
7. To ride on a lion is not healthy.

Click here for the answers.

Answers to the exercises of #7

1. Akraj dentoj estas danĝeraj.
2. La rozo de Teodoro estis sana kaj brilis.
3. Donu al mi la libron de la leono, la krajonon de la patro kaj la plumon de la frato.
4. Mi vidis la dentojn de la leono.
5. Kiu kuraĝas trovi pomon?
6. La infanoj restis kun la patro kaj la fratoj.
7. Rajdi sur leono ne estas sane.

Check back